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October 29, 2012
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Kepler - 22b V.2 by Alpha-Element Kepler - 22b V.2 by Alpha-Element
:iconreadplz::iconccwelcomedplz1::iconccwelcomedplz2::icondonotuseplz::iconmyartplz:

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:bulletred:update (21/04/13):

been a while since i updated this piece, huh. this is a well deserved update!:) figured i'd update this one probably one last time before i move on to some new kepler planets, hint hint!;)
most obvious update is the planet's colour, i've made significantly more blue! i like it.:D then you would notice a change in the planet's cloud texture, i'll explain further:
used three seperate cloud layers on the planet to create an enormous amount of depth into the planet's steamy atmosphere. three seperate cloud layers also offered more cloud type options to experiment with and it did help alot! not only does the atmosphere appear steamy but it also retained some cloud formations too adding to the realism. i changed the planets surface layer from more of an ocean texture to that of an ocean/ gas giant texture also, seeing that it should more resemble a smaller version of the planet neptune.

next noticable update is that the system is shifted to the right.
the moons are more colourised and have better orientations.
the image is also thinner.
the background is much darker too and it helps alot to make the system stand out.
more contrast to the image to give a more dramatic feel as well.
reduced the yellow glow from the star and made it more orange.
image just looks more bad a** and professional in general.

also updated the description as well.:)

wall paper pack coming soon too, so keep a look out for that!:D


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:bulletred:update (13/11/12):

i increased the planet's cloud density so that it appears more scientifically accurate. in actuality, its said to be even cloudier! but i'll leave it as it is, don't want you guys starring a ball of white! kinda fixed the jaggedness of the clouds, it isn't as bad as before. also made the planet more blue-ish and added a slight yellow hue to the system from the stars glow.

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hello!:D i'm back again with another awesome space scape!;) this time its a rework of one of my previous pieces, kepler-22b. i've made it much more interesting, accurate and realistic!:) and i absolutely love how it came out!:D ithink this is probably my most realistic looking work yet!
i'm also planning on reworking my previous exoplanets, as well as coming out with some new ones! spoiler alert!:D

:bulletred:i recommend downloadng to see all detail. also, large file size, so sorry if it takes long.:bulletred:

so enjoy the image! and remember that comments and critques and favs are welcome and appreciated!;)

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Kepler - 22b

:bulletblue: constellation: ................... Cygnus
:bulletblue: distance from earth: ......... 620 ly
:bulletblue: star's name: ..................... Kepler - 22
:bulletblue: star's type: ....................... G (main sequence)
:bulletblue: star's mass: ...................... 0.97 solar masses
:bulletblue: star's radius: ...................... 0.98 solar radii
:bulletblue: system's name: ................. Kepler - 22
:bulletblue: # planets in system: .......... 1


:bulletblue: planet's status: ................ confirmed
:bulletblue: planet's name: ................. Kepler - 22b
:bulletblue: planetary class: ................ possible super earth or mini neptune
:bulletblue: planetary sub-class: .......... if a super earth, possible ocean planet
:bulletblue: planet's radius: ................ 2.4 earth radii
:bulletblue: planet's mass: .................. < 36 earth masses
:bulletblue: planet's density: ............... < 14.35 g/cm (it's highly possible that the planet has a density closer to that of water)
:bulletblue: rotation period: ................. unlikely to be tidally locked
:bulletblue: atm. comp.: ..................... oxygen, water vapour, nitrogen, other gasses, high concentrations of hydrogen and helium
:bulletblue: atm. density: .................... most likely to be extremely dense
:bulletblue: average surface temp: ....... given an earth-like green house effect, 22C (but is most likely hotter)
:bulletblue: satellites: ......................... 2 (hypothetical)

:bulletblue: orbital eccentricity: ............ unknown (but likely to be lower than 0.3)
:bulletblue: orbital distance: ................ 0.85 au
:bulletblue: year: ............................... 289.9 earth days
:bulletblue: place in system: ................ inner edge of habitable zone


Description

Kepler-22b is an extrasolar planet orbiting the G-type star Kepler-22. It is located 620 light years away from Earth in the constellation of Cygnus. It was discovered by NASA's Kepler Space Telescope and is the first known transiting planet to orbit within the habitable zone of a Sun-like star.
Kepler-22b's radius is roughly 2.4 times the radius of Earth. Its mass and surface composition remain unknown, with only some very rough estimates established: it has less than 124 Earth masses at the 3-sigma confidence limit, and less than 36 Earth masses at 1-sigma confidence.
An Earth-like composition is ruled out to at least 1-sigma uncertainty by radial velocity measurements of the system. It is thus likely to have a more volatile-rich composition with a liquid or gaseous outer shell. Thus, kepler-22b might be an "ocean-like" world. Ocean worlds are planets said to be completely covered in a large deep ocean of water. They are said to be larger than earth and with densities around that of water.

The average distance from Kepler-22b to its host star Kepler-22 is about 15% less than the distance from Earth to the Sun but the luminosity of Kepler-22 is about 25% less than that of the Sun. This combination of a shorter average distance from the star and a lower stellar luminosity are consistent with a moderate surface temperature at that distance if we assume that the surface is not subject to extreme greenhouse heating.
If the planet is found to move in a highly elliptical orbit, its surface temperature will vary from a higher temperature when close to Kepler-22 to lower when further away. If the orbit is indeed highly elliptical, then the temperature variance range will be extreme. however, if the planet does turn out to have a deep global ocean, the water will act as a buffer and effectively circulate the heat around the planet, keeping the global temperature fairly constant throughout the planet's orbit. however if the ocean is too deep, high pressure forms of water ice can form at the bottom and block important life-stustaining nutrients from circulating between the mantle and the ocean, restricting the chances for life to take hold. there is the remote possibility that meteors and comets from space can constantly resupply these nutrients to the oceans, but this is highly unlikely.

Scientists can estimate the possible surface conditions as follows:

-In the absence of an atmosphere, the equilibrium temperature would be approximately -11C.
-If the atmosphere provides a greenhouse effect similar in magnitude to the one on Earth, the planet would have an average surface temperature of 22 C (72F).
-If the atmosphere has a greenhouse effect similar in magnitude to the one on Venus, the planet would have an average surface temperature of 460 C (860F).

the planet's atmosphere is most likely much denser than earth's. in this case, it is very capable of trapping more heat in it's atmosphere making the world a steam bath. but there should also be a lot of water vapour clouds floating around in the atmosphere that can reflect alot of the star's heat back into space, reducing the temperature to a more comfortable range. if this is the case, the surface would be very dark and not much energy would be able to reach the oceans for life sustaining proccesses to occur. in either case, the planet's dense atmosphere would cause the surface to be ravaged by heavy rain, ferocious winds and intense lightning. any life that evolves on this planet would have to adapt to these conditions or migrate further into the depths of the oceans.

the planet's density cannot exceed a density of 14.35 g/cm given its upper mass limit of 36 earth masses.
assuming a density of 5.52 g/cm, the same as earth's, the planet's mass would be 13.82 earth masses.
assuming a density of 1.64 g/cm, the same as neptune's, the planet would have a mass of 4.11 earth masses.
assuming a density of 1.00 g/cm, the same as water, the planet would have a mass of 2.50 earth masses.
it is most probable that the planet's density will fall between that of neptune's and earth's. however, it is also very possible that the planet's density could be closer to or below that of water making the planet totally a gas giant and completely uninhabitable to life. a more ideal density would be closer to that of earths but still well above that of neptune's.



because of the planet's high mass, it should also have a system of moons. here, i've given it 2 hypothetical moons. none of them depicted here are larger than ours. however, it is very possible that the planet may have high mass moons. there is also the possibility that if they retain a dense enough atmosphere, there could be water clouds floating around in it and that the moons themselves are slightly habitable.

if the planet really is a water world and not a mini-neptune, it would have good potential for life, maybe not as good as earth's but still good enough for life. the life may not be complex like us or even normal fish, but it would be very habitable to simple multicellular organisms.

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Statistics

time: ........................ 7 hours
programs: ................ photoshop cs5, cosmic pack 3 actions and textures
aprox. # of layers: .... 100


New Techniques/ Methods Used:

- milkyway galaxy in background for more depth.
- actually used a few coloured stars in background!:omfg:
- oriented moons closer to planet's equator. looks much better!
- used much higher contrast! makes the planet look soooo much better and more realistic!
- increased the planet's cloud density to look more like a 'steamy' atmosphere.
- reduced the cloud densities on the moons.
- made the planet's colour more blue instead of green.

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:icondonotuseplz::iconmyartplz:This Artwork is 2012 Alpha-Element.
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:icondavinciprime:
davinciprime Featured By Owner Jul 16, 2014  Hobbyist Artist
Hello!

I was wondering if I could have the privilege to use this picture on my Twitch banner profile. My gamertag is actually The Kepler 22b.

Thank you,

DaVinci Prime 
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:iconalpha-element:
Alpha-Element Featured By Owner Jul 30, 2014  Hobbyist Digital Artist
if you would like to, go ahead, but you would have to include somewhere in the image that it belongs to me though.
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:iconroseshadowangel:
RoseShadowangel Featured By Owner Feb 25, 2014  Hobbyist
hi hi  hey may i borrow this info for research im doing?
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:iconalpha-element:
Alpha-Element Featured By Owner Mar 3, 2014  Hobbyist Digital Artist
of coarse you may:D
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:iconthespunk3d:
TheSPunk3d Featured By Owner Apr 22, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Looks good.
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:iconalpha-element:
Alpha-Element Featured By Owner Apr 22, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
thanx!:D
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:iconasarigoddess:
AsariGoddess Featured By Owner Apr 22, 2013
Hmmm, you've achieved another masterpiece :) Breath-taking shot : Well done and thank you.
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:iconalpha-element:
Alpha-Element Featured By Owner Apr 22, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
thanks, glad you like it!:)
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:iconacephsoldier:
ACephSoldier Featured By Owner Nov 1, 2012
Epic
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:iconalpha-element:
Alpha-Element Featured By Owner Nov 1, 2012  Hobbyist Digital Artist
thanks!:)
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