!!!!! PLEASE DOWNLOAD FOR THE BEST QUALITY AND DETAIL!!!!!
!!!!! I RECOMMEND READIND THE DESCRIPTION!!!!!
!!!!! PLEASE COMMENT IF YOU CAN!!!!!Jupiter planet name:
Jupiter planetary class:
gas giant planetary sub-class:
jovian planetary radius:
69,911 km planetary mass:
317.8 earth masses surface gravity:
2.528 earth gravity sidereal day (rotation period):
9h, 55m, 30s rotational direction:
prograde axial tilt:
3.13° atm. comp.:
hydrogen, helium, methane, ammonia, other elements and compounds atm. density:
differentiates into layers- cloud deck, hydrogen layer, large liquid metallic hydrogen layer, dense core surface temp:
66 orbital eccentricity:
0.0488 orbital direction:
prograde mean orbital distance:
5.204 au perihelion distance:
4.950 au aphelion distance:
5.458 au year:
11.86 earth years with 5:2 orbital resonance with saturn place in system:
middle of system
jupiter, also called zeus, is the fifth planet from the sun and the largest and most massive planet in the solar system. at certain points in its orbit, it is the third brightest object in the night sky after the moon and venus, but sometimes mars can match jupiters brightness at certain points along its orbit. jupiter is a gas giant planet just like saturn, uranus and neptune, and is the first of the outer planets. even though jupiter is only 7% the sun's radius, its large mass causes the center of the solar system or the barycenter, to pull out of the sun's core and into its upper layers. and sometimes when jupiter and saturn allign in their orbits, the barycenter even comes out of the sun completely!
jupiter is a stormy planet and can be easily reconized by its colourful banded appearance. its most notable feature is the great red spot, a huge counter- cyclone 3 times the size of earth in the southern hemisphere of the planet, thats been raging for more than 300 years! this storm is said to rage for hundreds of years, die out and then form and begin again as a different storm and this has been happening ever since jupiter's formation. jupiters stormy weather is generated by its rapid rotation period of just less than ten hours, the fastest of all the planets. and this drives winds around the planet up to 350 kmh. these winds move in opposite directions to one another in zones and belts, creating the banded appearance of the planet and generating storms between them, the biggest of which is the great red spot. this rapid rotation also makes the planet appear notably flatter at the poles and bulged out at the equator. it can be seen in the image.
jupiter has a huge layer of liquid metallic hydrogen around its core. this liquid metallic hydrogen acts as a metal conducting electricity. this generates a massive magnetosphere around the planet, the largest and strongest of all the planets. if it were visible to the naked eye, it would be ten times the size of the full moon! this magnetic field traps radiation from the sun around the planets equator in the moon system, making it a hostile environment for life. the field lines also spiral radiation along them towards the poles, and here it interacts with the planets atmosphere to create the most dynamic and large aurorae in the solar system!
jupiter has the largest family of moons in the solar system, 66 known moons in total, most of which are captured asteroids. the largest of the planet's moons by far, are the four galilean moons, named after the planet's discoverer, gallileo galilei. they are, in order from the planet, io, europa, ganymede and callisto.
io is the closest of the galilean moons to jupiter, the second smallest of the four moons, and the most volcanically active body in the solar system. it is seen as the large orange moon in front of jupiter in the image. the moon is hot and volcanically active due to very strong tidal interactions between it, jupiter and the other galilean moons. this stretches the moon and contracts it, heating its interior up and causing it to erupt onto its surface from huge volcanoes. thus the moon's surface is relatively young and constantly being resurfaced by the erupting material. the moon also orbits jupiter very quickly, in just 1.77 earth days or roughly 42.5 earth hours and is tidally locked to the planet, always presenting the same face towards the planet. it shares a 1:2:4 laplace resonance with outer moons europa and ganymede, completing 4 orbits around jupiter in the time it takes europa to complete 2 and ganymede, 4. io orbits in jupiter's radiation belt and has an extremely weak magnetosphere that barely protects it from the radiation, making it a very hostile place in the jovian system. this radiation belt is called the io plasma torus and ionised atoms and gases that escape io's atmosphere, contributes to this belt and jupiters other radiation belts.
europa is the second closest and smallest of the galilean moons. it is the bright moon near the left of jupiter and behind it. it is a bright, icy, world revealing many dark, long fractures around it from tidal interactions with jupiter and the other galilean moons. these fractures are where the moon's crust splits and slides past itself generating heat that causes dark material from the moon's interior to well up and freeze around the fractures. the crust of europa is fairly young, but still old. the tidal heating causes the moon's interior to heat up and melt, but not as severely as io. this melts water ice under the surface and creates a large warm sub-surface ocean below the moon's thick icy surface. the moon also orbits in the planet's radiation belts, but has a very weak magnetosphere that converges with jupiter's. this protects the moon from some radiation, but the thick ice sheets would be enough to absorb the remaining radiation and stop it from reaching the sub-surface ocean. this would allow life to grow in the salty waters below the surface and there are future missions to send space probes to the moon to investigate the ocean for life. the moon is also tidally locked to jupiter and shares in a 1:2:4 laplace resonance with inner moon io and outer moon ganymede. it completes 1 orbit in the time io completes 2 and ganymede completes half its orbit.
ganymede is the largest and third farthest of the galilean moons. it is also the largest moon in the solar system and larger than the planet mercury! it is the small moon to the far left of jupiter and behind it. the moon is tidally locked to jupiter and completes an orbit roughly every seven earth days or one earth week. the moon shares a 1:2:4 laplace resonance with inner moons io and europa, completing 1 orbit in the time it takes io to complete 4 and europa, 2. the moon's interior is differentiated into a semi-liquid iron core, a solid silicate inner mantle, a large warm ice outer mantle and a cold rigid icy crust. the surface layer of ganymede consists of two types of terrain, very old, dark, cratered regions and younger, but still ancient, brighter regions marked with extensive grooves and ridges. this is due to ganymede's past where it may had experienced some tidal heating due to unstable resonances in its orbit. because the moon has a large iron core, it generates a resonably strong magnetic field that merges with jupiter's. this helps prevent alot of the radiation around its orbit, but deadly amounts still reach its surface. ganymede is the only moon in the solar system with a significant magnetosphere. the moon also has a tenuous atmosphere of atomic oxygen, diatomic oxygen gas and ozone. due to the moon's large mass, it is a possible site for future colonization, giving proper actions are taking to prevent against the vacuum of space, the radiation, the low temperature and gravity to some extent.
callisto is the furthest and second largest of the galilean moons. it is the small dark moon to the right and behind jupiter. it is tidally locked to jupiter and does not participate in any orbital resonace with the other galilean moons, due to its distance from the planet and seperation from the other large moons. it orbits jupiter roughly every 16.7 earth days. the moons ice and rock interior is said to be completely solid and frozen through, with a thick icy and silicate crust. the moon's crust is said to be one of the oldest surfaces of any body in the solar system. it is dark, cold and heavily cratered from many impact collisions in the moon's past. the most notable of these craters is the valhalla impact crater which is roughly 3,800km in diameter. the moon has a very tenuous atmosphere of carbon dioxide and oxygen. jupiters magnetic field induces a weak field around callisto and due to callisto's distant orbit from the planet, it does not recieve as much radiation as the other large moons. callisto has a large mass and is thus a possible future base or way point in the solar system. there are plan's to probably send a manned mission to the moon in the 2040's.
i really loved making this and i really enjoyed typing the description!
this is jupiter redone, along with the four galilean moons. the image is more accurate, i added the milkyway, i flattened jupiter a bit and the moons are more accurate in terms of distance. all in all, i like how it came out and i like the description as well!
as always, comments and critiques are welcomed and appreciated!
_______________________________________________________!!!THANK YOU FOR ALL FAVES IN ADVANCE. THERE MOST APPRECIATED!!!
________________________________________________________THIS WORK IS COPYRIGHT ALPHA-ELEMENT